Web application Architecture Fundamentals

Fundamentals of web application architecture

A sequence of interactions between numerous components, user interfaces, middleware systems, databases, servers, and the browser allows the ordinary internet user to see a certain page on his or her system.

Web app Architecture, also known as web app map, is the framework that links this relationship and interaction together. In a nutshell, the process flow usually begins with the user looking for a URL, after which the browser initiates a search.

The network delivers data from the server to the browser as a result of the search, and the browser shows the page that was requested.

Modern web app architecture, to put it simply, consists of multiple components and external apps.

Transformed capabilities in frontend and backend processes have emerged from the move to ever superior mobile and web apps.

Furthermore, multi-page apps are growing more complicated, and full-stack development architecture is becoming more popular.

The inner workings of a web application’s architecture

Web applications are comprised of two distinct sets of programs that operate independently yet concurrently with the same purpose of delivering solutions in a cooperative manner.

Typically, the two sets of programs are the code in the browser that works with the user’s inputs and the code in the server that deals with protocol requests, such as HTTPS.

In other words, web developers must be able to decide on the functions of server-side code and browser-side code, as well as how the two will interact.

Also read: Everything You Need to Know About Web Applications Architecture & Components!

There are five different styles of web app architecture.

Regardless of its kind, each web app component contributes to the overall web app. There are numerous forms of web app architecture based on the logical distribution of a web app between server-side and client-side:

Applications that are only one page long (SPA)

It’s the age of simplicity, and single-page web apps are more popular than ever. Only the content pieces that are essential are included in the most popular apps.

This provides a more engaging user experience, allowing Single page apps and the user to engage in a more dynamic manner.


The Microservices Architecture framework allows developers to roll out applications faster and more efficiently by executing a single and particular functionality.

There is more freedom in selecting a technology of choice since diverse components are produced in different coding languages.

Architectures with no servers

Serverless architecture allows an app to run independently of infrastructure activities, removing the need for developers to manage backend servers and relying on third-party infrastructure.

HTML web app from the past

A server with business logic and web page building logic communicates with the client via a complete web page based on a simple web app architecture. To view an update, the user must either completely reload the page or have the client issue an HTML page request to the server, which will reload the entire code.

Because the whole data and functionality are stored on the server, which the user cannot access, this form of web app design is extremely safe. Static websites are dying out due to continuous reloading and massive data interchange, paving the way for more agile and interactive web app types.

Web app with widgets

Web services take the place of web page building logic in this case, and each client page has its own set of ‘Widgets.’ By making AJAX requests to web services, widgets get a large quantity of HTML or JSON data and display it without refreshing the entire page.

Additionally, the addition of real-time widget updates makes this kind more dynamic, mobile-friendly, and popular among consumers.

Components of a web application

Architectures for Web applications are made up of a range of components that may be split into two groups: user interface components and structural components.

App components with a user interface

This is a list of web pages that have anything to do with display, settings, and configurations.

It is more concerned with the user interface/experience than with development, and so it deals with display dashboards, configuration settings, notifications, and logs, among other things.

Components of structure

The structural components essentially pertain to the user-interface functionality, control, and database storage.

In other words, as the name implies, it is primarily concerned with the structural components of the architecture. The web browser or client, the web application server, and the database server are the three main components.

Users can interact with web functionalities written using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript via a web browser or client.

The core hub that supports business logic and multi-layer applications written in Python, PHP, Java,.NET, Ruby, and Node.js is the web application server.

The database server provides business logic as well as pertinent information/data, which it stores and manages. It saves, retrieves, and distributes data.

Component models for web apps

The number of servers and databases utilized in the design will determine the web app’s model. The following are examples of web app component models:

a single web server (with database)

A single web server with a single database is used in the web app component paradigm. When the server goes down, a web app built on this approach will go down as well. That is why it is untrustworthy.

This paradigm is typically used for running test projects and learning and understanding the principles of a web application.

One database, two or more web servers

The webserver does not save any data in this web application component model. When a web server receives information from a client, it processes it and then publishes it to a database. Stateless architecture refers to the management of both of these items outside of the server.

To avoid failure, this component model requires at least two web servers. As a result, if one of the web servers goes down, the other will take over. So that the web app may continue to run, all requests will be immediately forwarded to the new server. As a result, dependability is higher than with a single server.

Two or more web servers, with two or more databases

This is the most effective model. The two-server or multi-server approach provides users with two options: they may either keep all of their data in the employed databases or spread it among these databases.

The user just needs two databases to hold all of the data. However, the most common thing in both of these scenarios is DBMS normalization in the event of displacement. Installing load balancers on more than 4 or 5 servers, or both is also recommended.

The architecture of a web server

By all definitions, this relates to a web server’s ideal layout, which will make the web server’s design, development, and deployment easier.

The responsibility is to respond to client requests using secure protocols, including browsers and mobile applications. The queries may be for page resources or they could be for a REST API.

Apart from the application tier, web servers are critical to the operation of web apps, necessitating a greater focus on web server design, which includes the server’s physical capacity – storage, memory, computational power, and performance.

This might occur within the server, over the network, or within the operating systems. The following are the several types of web server architecture:

The architecture of a Java web application

Java web app architecture is popular in the corporate development environment since it is a flexible programming language.

The complexity of web application designs, which might be basic or multi-tiered, is determined by the solution’s needs.

Java Web Application Architecture is the ideal platform for developers to construct solutions and deliver as expected, regardless of the complexity or nature of the app.

The flexibility to integrate and rely on Java native tools and frameworks for constructing applications is one of the architecture’s key features.

Web application architecture on the cloud

The move to the cloud is more of a need than a choice, owing to the numerous advantages across all criteria.

As a result, cloud-based web app architecture has been established, resulting in the development of a corollary – data decoupling. To put it another way, cloud-based apps work and store data on both local servers and the cloud.

The architecture of a Node.js web application

The model-view pattern is at the heart of Node.js web application design; for example, the model-view-controller, model-view-view model, and model-view-presenter.

Apart from routing, Node.js allows the construction of patterns for the purpose of detecting and configuring code parts.

Through data systematization, separating functionality into modules, processing important insights from logs, and dividing the code, this depends on an entity-relationship to guarantee that the program functions smoothly.

Another significant benefit is that the Node.js web application architecture facilitates the development of scalable online applications.

The architecture of a.NET web application

This takes care of cross-platform compatibility, Docker containers, microservices, and side-by-side versioning, among other things.

The ability to save data without the need for database code is the framework’s main feature.

Because the design relies on ASP.NET Core and.NET Core for optimization, the Data Access Layer helps increase functionality and development.

The architecture of a PHP web application

PHP is one of the most popular programming languages in the community since it is the simplest and most functional.

The design allows for strong security, rapid development, a specialized framework, easy maintenance, and extensive support from a developer community.

The architecture of an AngularJS web application

As a platform and a framework, this design operates in two modes for HTML and TypeScript.

The usage of modules for constructing comes with a slew of advantages when it comes to Angular development, including improved user experience and reduced code size.

Web development with Laravel

Another PHP web framework, Laravel, uses the model view controller architectural pattern and features an expressive, creative, and beautiful syntax at its heart.

It simplifies the web development process by improving routing, sessions, authentication, and caching; as a consequence, projects are completed in less time.

It aids in traffic generation and includes adaptable elements such as modular packaging solutions.

One of the features is the ability to construct many routes with the same route name by using distinct URLs. Special inclusion pathways are not required because of the autoloading facility.

Frameworks for web development in Python

Python makes it easier to create web apps by providing code that is short, succinct, legible, and maintainable. This is one of the reasons why Python is so popular among developers as a server-side scripting language.

Multiple Python Web Frameworks, including full-stack, are used to create custom web applications using Python programming.

It is not just dynamic, but it also does not require much code, generally cutting coding time in half compared to other programming languages.

The most significant advantage of Python is that it is often regarded as the best language for prototyping.

Apart from the huge library at its disposal, it is also very adaptable and integrates well with other languages.

A quick rundown of three-tier architecture

So that any of the servers handle requests in the same way, and the load balancer distributes jobs to avoid overcharging. The presentation tier, application tier, and data tier are the three app levels of a three-tier architecture. The three-tier architecture’s key advantage is that each development team may work on each layer independently. This design also improves the speed of web apps.

The three-tier design’s main advantage is that it’s a highly clean architecture, with each tier running on its own dedicated server hardware or virtual server. As a result, the application services for each tier may be modified and optimized without affecting the other architectures.

In addition, three-tier architecture has a number of advantages, including quicker development, high dependability, greater security, and increased scalability.

Also read: Architecture Software Development Company & Services

Diagram of a Web Application Architecture

A web application architecture diagram is essentially a framework that allows components to communicate with one another. A web app architecture diagram is a client-server app with several user interfaces, application insights, databases, and middleware systems. However, there are a couple more items to add to the list:


The Domain Name Method, or DNS, is a crucial system for locating IP addresses, domain names, and IP addresses. As a result, a particular server receives a request from a user in this fashion. DNS, in a nutshell, is an architectural concept that functions similarly to a phone directory of Internet websites.

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Balancer of Loads

The primary function of a load balancer is to send incoming requests to one of the numerous servers. In most cases, the servers exist as numerous copies that mirror each other.

Servers for Web Applications

This server component serves as an application deployment descriptor, handling user requests and returning JSON or XML documents to a browser. Back-end infrastructures such as the cache server, database, and work queue are commonly referred to as this. In addition, the user’s requests are processed by at least two servers linked to the load balancer.


A database provides several tools for adding, organizing, updating, searching, removing, and computing data. In the vast majority of circumstances, web app servers connect directly with job servers.

Service of Caching

Data storage and search are provided by the caching service. The results are cached whenever a user requests information from the server. As a result, subsequent requests will be processed more quickly.

The following cases benefit from caching:

  • Calculation time is slow.
  • Calculations that are repeated
  • When the results for a certain request are similar.

Final thoughts

As the web changes, so do the technologies and frameworks that support it. The older legacy structures and fundamental components have been replaced with modern web application development.

As a result, selecting the appropriate web app architecture is critical, as it will affect the web application’s performance.

The speed of the web app, its sturdy and secure nature, and the manner in which it is responsive is all dependent on the architecture chosen.

A solution’s business requirements must be considered in the context of its technological requirements, and vice versa. With what might be referred to as an intelligent blueprint, the correct web application architecture lays the way for future goals of expansion and scalability.

Expansion in the future will surely entail needs such as interoperability and the need for enhanced dependability, in addition to growing demand.

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